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Extracts from Herbage Abstracts, vol.8, 1938 - vol.40, 1970.
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Wilkins, R. and Garwood, E. Effects of treading, poaching and fouling on grassland production and utilization. in: Frame, J. (ed.) Grazing, Proceedings of BGS Conference, MalvernBritish Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No 19 British Grassland Cited by: The effects of trampling on the invertebrate fauna of grassland litter was studied using two levels of treading intensity over a period of 12 months.
Changes in the structure of the litter after treatment (fall in total volume, proportion of air space) were measured with a Quantimet Image Analysing by: Trampling, Poaching and the Effect of Traffic. In book: Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology, pp The chapter describes the effects of trampling in three archaeological.
WILKINS, R.J. and GARWOOD, E.A. () Effects of treading, poaching and fouling on grassland production and utilization.
In: Frame J. (ed) Grazing, British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No. 19, pp. WOLTERS, V. () Soil invertebrates - effects on nutrient turnover and soil structure - A Review. mainly based on the direct grazing of grasslands, pastures, fodder crops, and crop residues Trampling and Treading Expected damage aggregate crushing compaction puddling and poaching no effect.
The challenges facing grassland agronomists are becoming increasingly complex, with environmental and ethical issues assuming a greater significance alongside more conventional technical aspects.
Agronomists need to be equipped to address these new problems, requiring skills and understanding not found within traditional agronomy texts.
This new edition of Agronomy of Grassland Systems. In arid grasslands, wells are subject to heavy trampling and grazing pressure, which can increase vulnerability to local land degradation.
To investigate trampling and grazing, we surveyed plant communities at three well sites in the desert steppe of Mongolia, using m line transects from the wells.
The sites (Bshrub, Sshrub, and shrubL) differed by concomitant shrub type (big shrub, small. Certain species are more sensitive to trampling and the stage of maturity also influences the effect of heavy traffic. The size of the livestock also enters into the picture.
Trampling, or treading as it is termed in some references, damages pastures of all soil types, soil. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Associat 63– Menneer JC, Ledgard SF, McLay CDA, Silvester WB () The effects of treading by dairy cows during wet soil conditions on white clover productivity, growth and morphology in a white clover–perennial ryegrass pasture.
Grass and Forage Scie 46– The effects of treading by dairy cows during wet soil conditions on white clover productivity, growth and morphology in a Effects of treading clover-perennial ryegrass pasture.
Grass and Forage Science, Vol. 60, Issue. 1, p. Effects of intensive cattle trampling on soil-plant-earthworms system in two grassland types.
trampling and poaching on grassland book Soil Biology and Biochemis Davies, P. A., and Armstrong, A. Abstract. Grazing cattle exert positive and negative effects on pasture production. It is shown that at a fertilizer nitrogen (N) input of kg N ha-1 yr-1 and more, the benefit from N circulation through urine and dung is not of significance for the pasture as a whole.
Of the negative effects, poaching has the greatest influence on the response of pasture production to N fertilization.
In studies on an established Lolium perenne grassland, subsoiling, mole ploughing and paraploughing increased 1st cut yields by t DM/ha in and but not in Annual yields were not significantly affected. Soil drainage in spring and autumn was increased by the cultivation treatments, with the effects of paraploughing being least persistent.
The effects of trampling by cattle on physical parameters of a heavy clay (a Typic Cryaquept) were studied at the followings four Site types of a pasture after grazing for three seasons: (1) grass with no visible trampling; (2) pasture with some trampling; (3) vicinity of a drinking site with some signs of penetrated hooves, and; (4) a drinking.
Introduction. Trampling by large grazers is common Effects of treading arid and semiarid ecosystems, and may strongly impact plant performance –, community structure – and ecosystem ing can directly cause tissue loss and damage and indirectly impose mechanical stress on plants.In arid and semiarid drylands trampling also contributes to desertification.
They have a strong propensity to convert woodland to grassland and shrubland because of their removal of trees, which can cause a ripple effect on food webs, herbivore communities and to the species community (Coverdale et al., ; Chamaille-Jammes et al., ; Fritz, ) It has been seen that when elephants are removed woodland will.
Due to the increased herd size in the Netherlands, there is need to assess the performance of different grazing systems at high stocking densities.
The objective of the current experiment was to assess the effect of two extreme grazing systems, kurzrasen (continuous grazing at 3–5 cm sward height) and strip-grazing at a high stocking rate, on grass production and quality, grass morphology.
The impact of cattle trampling on the porosity of a representative soil (Typic Natraquoll) of the flooding Pampa of Argentina was studied from to Water content, total porosity (TP), macroporosity (> 30 μm) and mean weight diameter of water‐stable aggregates (MWD) were determined in undisturbed topsoil samples taken from adjacent.
They graze the vegetation to a very low level. Like cattle, they can cause problems through over-trampling and poaching. Ponies’ are nutritionally adapted to graze on unimproved, species rich grasslands, which is seen as their main advantage.
Animals such as red deer and water buffalo are also used effectively for conservation grazing. Hunting & Poaching. Humans affect the animal populations by hunting or poaching and by replacing the habitat of the animals in the tropical grasslands. Some of the endangered animals include the Mexican prairie dog and the Utah prairie dogs.
People hunt the prairie dogs as a sport and sometimes just poison them as they are considered as pests. Pande TN, Yamamoto H () Cattle treading effects on plant growth and soil stability in the mountain grassland of Japan.
Land Degradation and Developm doi: /1dr Scholefield D, Hall DM () A method to measure the susceptibility of pasture soils to poaching by cattle.
The loss of fertile land to desertification has brought an end to many majestic civilizations throughout the human history. For example, the destruction of the native tropical forest in the Indus Valley opened up a pathway for the desert to claim more and more land, leading to.
In fact, native grassland plants have adapted to extreme weather conditions to such an extent that savannas, a subset of grasslands found in Africa, Australia, South America, and. Grasslands and dryland ecosystems are adapted to, and dependent upon, disturbances such as grazing and trampling.
by Joy Livingwell. Summary: Intense, short-duration trampling and dunging by grazing animals is a natural part of how ecosystems function in arid and seasonally dry ng grazers damages these ecosystems, which depend on disturbance by grazing animals to perform. Livestock grazing and trampling effects on plant functional composition at three wells in the desert steppe of Mongolia Amartuvshin Narantsetseg1, Sinkyu Kang2* and Dongwook Ko3 Abstract Backgrounds: In arid grasslands, wells are subject to heavy trampling and grazing pressure, which can increase vulnerability to local land degradation.
Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction.
It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter. Describing the impact of farming on soil quality is challenging, because the model should consider changes in the physical, chemical, and biological status of soils.
Physical damage to soils through heavy traffic was already analyzed in several life-cycle assessment studies. However, impacts on soil structure from grazing animals were largely ignored, and physically based model approaches to.
This paper presents an analysis of the intensity of trampling on the soils and the vegetation on three transects which reached from the bank of the River Thames, across a footpath and into a grazed water meadow. Soil bulk density, penetration resistance, water content and the height above the water table were all strongly correlated with trampling.
The effects of trampling depend on the livestock species. The physical pressure exerted on a gra ssland by sheep is estimated to be to kg per cm² and by cattle to be - kg per cm² (Spedding ).
Although a certain amount of bare ground is desirable, heavy poaching. This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden.
We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory.
We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the. The effects of defoliation and trampling on microclimate and the living Similar effects are apparent in other grassland invertebrates, e.g., Hawkins et al.
() observed a decline in leafhopper-planthopper populations (Homoptera: through the effects of defoliation, treading, defaecation, and urination by grazing animals, which may. Cattle and other livestock graze more than a quarter of the planet's total land surface, making livestock grazing the most ubiquitous human activity on earth in land area used (Steinfeld et alRobinson et al ).Livestock production is generally thought of as detrimental to wildlife and many people assert that livestock have had a dramatic negative impact on global biodiversity.
The Animal and Grassland Research Institute, Hurley, Maidenhead, Berks SL6 5LR, U.K. Search for more papers by this author. The management and productivity of lowland grassland in Britain has been transformed during the last 50 years, largely through greater fertilizer inputs, changes in stocking practices, increases in silage production, a greater emphasis on optimizing yields of nutrients rather than dry matter per se, and development of new harvesting techniques (Chamberlain et al.
; Fuller ). Vegetation trampling resulting from recreation can adversely impact natural habitats, leading to the loss of vegetation and the degradation of plant communities.
A considerable primary literature exists on this topic, therefore it is important to assess whether this accumulated evidence can be used to reach general conclusions concerning vegetation vulnerability to inform conservation.
This paper reviews animal treading and the associated effects on soil physical properties and pasture productivity from treading-induced soil compaction and pugging. Response curve relationships between soil physical properties (e.g.
macroporosity, air-filled porosity, bulk density) and pasture and crop yield are reviewed. Optimum soil macroporosity for maximum pasture and crop yield.
Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment.
The potential environmental effects of. Key Words: treading, compaction, infiltration, herbage loss, soil water, trampling Livestock trampling has both direct and indirect effects on vege- tation and soils. There are physical effects of the grazing animals’ hoof action which can cause mechanical injury or loss of vegetation.
Experimental evidence that even minor livestock trampling has severe effects on land snail communities in forest remnants Lisa H. Denmead1,2*, Gary M.
Barker3, Rachel J. Standish4 and Raphael K. Didham2,5 1Agroecology, Georg-August-Universitat G€ €ottingen, Grisebachstr. 6, G ottingen, Germany;€ 2School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway.
Abstract. Field investigations on loamy sand soil showed that compaction by cattle trampling increased soil bulk density and cone penetrometer resistance. Trampling produced very dense zones at depths of 7– cm, which impeded drainage, despite the presence of large macropores.
Soil structural and hydrological changes caused by hoof compaction can result in serious pasture management. Grazing, browsing and trampling by native wild animals are components of natural bog ecosystems in the UK but unsustainable levels of grazing and trampling from grazing livestock (sheep, cattle and deer) can have adverse effects on the peatland ecosystem.
Research evidence suggests that blanket bog. The African elephant’s current conservation status is vulnerable. The key concerns of the decline of African elephant populations are habitat loss and poaching.
An African elephant is dominant in its environment and provides a serious impact on the ecology by removing trees, trampling grasses, creating watering holes, and improving soil.Introduction. Grazing, the most common use of grasslands, can influence plant community structure, soil properties and nutrient cycling within the plant-soil instance, selective grazing caused changes in plant species composition and influenced herbage l previous studies proposed that light and moderate grazing favored grasses and stimulated grassland productivity.